How Does Cannabinoid(CBD) Oil’s Work?
In the previous article, the benefits and therapeutic uses of CBD oil were discussed. It is also important to know how CBD oil works. Use of CBD oil activates a series of processes inside the human body between endocannabinoids (produced naturally), cannabinoid in the cannabis plant, and cannabinoid receptors found in the central nervous system and the immune system. Of the eighty six known cannabinoid receptors, CB 1 and CB 2 are the predominant receptors studied for the use of CBD oil.
CB 1 induces the release of neurotransmitters which produce a natural state of equilibrium (homeostasis) that influences such functions as concentration, appetite, memory and pain. CB2 lowers immune suppression and is influenced by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) more than CB1 which responds effectively to CBD. CB 1 inhibits the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme which minimizes the role of the CB1 receptor and reduces its psychoactive effect. This process occurs with the activation of the adenosine receptors which involve the release of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitters that interact with cognition, motor control and reward mechanisms. Glutamate mediates the excitatory signals mainly used by the CB1 receptor.
CB1 used in higher concentration activates the 5HT1A (hydroxytrptomine) serotonin receptor. 5HT1A is part of the 5-HT receptors which trigger multiple intracellular messages that produce either an excitatory or inhibitory reaction. CB1 slows down the 5HT1A receptor while the 5HT2A receptor produces an excitatory response.
CBD regulates various ion channels which adhere to transient receptor potential cation (TRPV1) and regulates pain, inflammation and body temperature. TRPV1 is a vanillinoid receptor. Vanilla contains eugenol, an essential oil that has both analgesic and antiseptic properties that aid in the unclogging of blood vessels. Capsasin, the compound found in hot chili pepper, activates the TRPV1 agonist, where cannabinol triggers the 5HT1A serotonin receptor and TRPV ion channels.
CBD is an antagonist that deactivates the GPR55 protein which promotes an anti-cancer effect by signaling the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that are located on the cell’s nucleus. This process stimulates the PPAR Gamma which induce tumor regulation. PPAR degrades amyloid beta plaque, a key molecule linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. PPAR also regulates genes that are involved in lipid uptake, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic processes.
CBD passes through the cell membrane by attaching to the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) proteins which escort lipid molecules into the cell interior. These intracellular transport molecules escort the CBD endocannabinoid anandamide across the membrane to locations within the cell. CBD then modulates the receptors on the surface of the mitochondria and the cell’s nucleus.
Cannabinol and FABP along with natural endocannabinoids are fatty acids that use the same transport molecule. Once inside the cell, the anamide is broken down by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) a metabolic enzyme. CBD interferes with the amides access to the FABP transport molecule, and decreases the endocannabinoid levels in the brain’s synapses. These functions allow the enhancement of the endocannabinoids influence by reuptake inhibition, a neuro-protective process which regulates seizures.
CBD’s anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety effects are attributed to its inhibition of adenosine reuptake which delays the activation of this neurotransmitter. CBD boosts the adenosine receptors activity which regulates myocardial oxygen consumption and the inflammatory response.
CBD is also a positive allosteric modulator which interacts with the gabba-a receptor that enhances the endogenous agonist gamma ammo butyric acid (GABA). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. CBD lowers anxiety by changing the shape of the gabba-a receptor in a way that allows its natural calming effect to occur. CBD has a negative allosteric modulator response, which is concentrated in the brain and central nervous system. Cannabinol doesn’t bind to the CB1 receptor like THC. CBD lowers CB1’s ability to initiate the psychoactive process.